What is the difference between 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz in WiFi?

2.4 GHz and 5 GHz are simply the frequency bands a Wi-Fi router can transmit.

The 2.4GHz frequency was the first to be used, and it has the advantage of covering a large area and easily passing through obstacles. On the other hand, it suffers from interferences caused by a large number of nearby devices. Another issue with this frequency is that with the increasing number of computers, tablets, and smartphones, it was unable to provide connectivity to everyone, resulting in traffic congestion.

The 5GHz frequency was created to address the issue. This increases the throughput by providing a wider bandwidth (the number of transmitted bytes in a time unit). As a result, it is a method of resolving traffic congestion.

When it comes to the speed of the Wi-Fi signal, the value of the frequency directly affects. The higher the frequency, the higher is the speed and vice versa.
As a result, it's evident that when we use the 5 GHz frequency band in our Wi-Fi router, our internet uploading and downloading rates will be faster than when we use the 2.4 GHz frequency band. Unlike the 2.4 GHz frequency band, which may only allow you to browse and do relatively light tasks on the internet, the 5 GHz frequency band allows you to effortlessly stream videos, make video calls, and download larger files.

Another difference between these two frequency bands is the 'Range' or 'Coverage' of the Wi-Fi signal. The range of your Wi-Fi signal will be limited if your frequency band is high. The reason for this is because higher frequency transmissions cannot pass through walls and barriers. As a result, the 5 GHz frequency band will provide you with less coverage than the 2.4 GHz frequency band.

If you’re using an 802.11ac router (one of the fastest available Wi-Fi standards), you may have a 2.4GHz option, but only the 5GHz can use “ac” technology.